By Thomas R. Kratochwill
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Extra resources for Single Subject Research. Strategies for Evaluating Change
Thus, differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) was combined with response cost (removal of stars) and a mild punishment ("wrong"). The effect of these combined intervention procedures was quite dramatic, as Fig. 4 shows. The authors concluded that DRO combined with other techniques was quite manageable for the teacher and successful on three other subjects involved in these experiments. , Risely & Wolf, 1972; Wolf & Risley, 1971). The basic time-series design can help control some but not all sources of internal invalidity.
Brushy Mountain policy introduced July 28, 1968. Monthly data multiplied by a constant of 1000. [Source: Schnelle, J. , & Lee, J. A quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of prison policy change. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 483-496. Copyright by Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc. ] 34 Thomas R. Kratochwill must be made in the context of such invalidating influences as history, instrumentation, and regression (cf. Kratochwill & Levin, in press, for further discussion of methodological consideration in the study).
Browning and Stover (1971) also observed that in applied therapeutic situations an investigator seldom returns to the original baseline level. This militates against the logic of the design and would not allow investigators to establish experimental control. A third problem in the use of the ABA design is that it is susceptible to multiple-intervention interference and sequential confounding (Bandura, 1969 ; Campbell & Stanley, 1966 ; Kazdin, 1973). Effects observed in the final baseline phase may not be the same as those observed under conditions where no intervention had been introduced into the series.