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By John W. Humphrey

Since precedent days, technological advances have elevated man's possibilities for survival. From the practicality of a Roman aqueduct to the artwork of the written be aware, guy has consistently tailored his atmosphere to satisfy his wishes, and to supply himself with sustenance, convenience, convenience, relaxation, the next caliber of dwelling, and a thriving tradition. This concise reference resource takes a better examine six technological occasions that considerably impacted the evolution of civilization, from the Palaeolithic age to the peak of the Roman Empire. As he touches at the universal parts of historic technology—energy, machines, mining, metallurgy, ceramics, agriculture, engineering, transportation, and communication—Humphrey asks questions relevant to figuring out the influence of historical instruments at the smooth international: What activates swap? What cultural traditions inhibit swap? What influence do those alterations have on their societies and civilization?

Humphrey explores applied sciences as either actual instruments and as extensions of the human physique, starting with the discovery of the Greek alphabet and together with such accomplishments as early Neolithic plant cultivation, the discovery of coinage, the construction of the Parthenon, and Rome's city water process. specific line drawings of instruments and machines make historic mechanics extra simply obtainable. fundamental files, word list, biographies, and a timeline courting from the Palaeolithic age to the Roman Empire around out the paintings, making this an incredible reference resource for knowing the instruments of the traditional world.

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These Villanovans were supplanted in the eighth century by the Etruscans, a mysterious people whose origin, like that of the Minoans, is still debated and whose language is still largely indecipherable. Many of their attributes would connect them with the inhabitants of Lydia in western Asia Minor, and their culture in Italy seems to explode almost overnight. They were much influenced by the Greek colonies of south Italy, and some of the finest painted ceramics in the Greek mode originate in Etruria.

Similarly with animals: those that exhibited juvenile characteristics were favored over the strong, and bred to eliminate their wild characteristics. This—the earliest form of genetic manipulation by humans—was eventually to make a significant portion of Mediterranean flora and fauna dependent on human assistance in reproduction and survival: at least as sobering an innovation as the genetic modification of foods that is being debated at the beginning of the twentyfirst century. Food Plants Cereals were the first cultivated food plants, and can be credited with making settled life possible.

Under its great democratic leader Pericles, Athens outshone the rest of the Greek world politically, militarily, and culturally. E. to expel the Persians from the Aegean, eventually transforming the League into its own empire. E. But in less than a hundred years that city had given the world tragic and comic theater, the ‘‘science’’ of historical writing, and an architectural and sculptural heritage whose effects are still with us. Though Athens was forced to give up its empire and lost its political (but not cultural) prestige, no other Greek state was able to take its place for long.

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