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By Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos

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Therefore, every 16 grams of CH4 produced and lost to the atmosphere corresponds to the removal of 64 grams of COD from the waste. Under normal temperature and pressure conditions, this corresponds to 350 mL of CH4 for each gram of degraded COD. 08206 atm·L/mole·◦ K) T = operational temperature of the reactor (◦ C) Considering that the production of methane can be easily determined in an anaerobic reactor, this is a fast, direct measurement of the conversion degree of the waste and of the efficiency of the treatment system.

4. Antagonistic elements are usually added by means of chloride salts. 4. Stimulating and inhibiting concentrations of some cations Cation Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Stimulating 100 to 200 75 to 150 200 to 400 100 to 200 Source: McCarty (1964) Concentration (mg/L) Moderately inhibiting 2,500 to 4,500 1,000 to 1,500 2,500 to 4,500 3,500 to 5,500 Strongly inhibiting 8,000 3,000 12,000 8,000 36 (b) Anaerobic reactors Toxicity by ammonia Usually, the presence of ammonia bicarbonate, resulting from the digestion of sewage rich in urea- or protein-based compounds, is beneficial to the digester as a source of nitrogen and as a buffer for pH changes.

Stimulating and inhibiting concentrations of some cations Cation Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Stimulating 100 to 200 75 to 150 200 to 400 100 to 200 Source: McCarty (1964) Concentration (mg/L) Moderately inhibiting 2,500 to 4,500 1,000 to 1,500 2,500 to 4,500 3,500 to 5,500 Strongly inhibiting 8,000 3,000 12,000 8,000 36 (b) Anaerobic reactors Toxicity by ammonia Usually, the presence of ammonia bicarbonate, resulting from the digestion of sewage rich in urea- or protein-based compounds, is beneficial to the digester as a source of nitrogen and as a buffer for pH changes.

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