By Hugo I. De Lasa
The cross-fertilization of physico-chemical and mathematical rules has a protracted historic culture. This quantity of Advances in Chemical Engineering is sort of thoroughly devoted to a convention on 'Mathematics in Chemical Kinetics and Engineering' (MaCKiE-2007), which used to be held in Houston in February 2007, bringing jointly approximately forty mathematicians, chemists, and chemical engineers from 10 nations to debate the applying and improvement of mathematical instruments of their respective fields.
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Extra info for Advances in Chemical Engineering: Photocatalytic Technologies
In order to take into account the dependence on photon flows, it would be necessary to develop a kinetic model based on the proposed reaction mechanism in which the photons appear as reactants. Work on this field is in progress. 29 Determination of Photoadsorption Capacity APPENDICES A1. ASYMPTOTIC CASES OF LANGMUIR PHOTOADSORPTION ISOTHERM A straightforward determination of KLÃ , NSÃ , k, and CL,0 parameters can be done in the following way. k and CL,0 may be easily determined by considering two asymptotic situations of Langmuir adsorption isotherm, that is, very high or very low substrate concentration.
Removal of Hg(II) took place in both cases, with Hg(0) deposition when starting from PMA, and mixtures of Hg(0) and Hg2Cl2 when starting from PMC. The reaction was faster at pH 11, with formation of mixtures of Hg and HgO. Oxygen inhibited the reaction. Phenol was detected as a product of both PMA and PMC. It was found that, fortunately, no dangerous methyl- or ethylmercury species were formed in the case of PMA. Calomel formation from PMC under nitrogen reinforces the two successive one-electron transfer reactions, as in the case of inorganic salts.
MðnÀ1Þþ ð11Þ Alternatively, the metal can be oxidized by holes or hydroxyl radicals: • ðnþ1Þþ Mnþ þ hþ vb =HO ! M ð12Þ Photocatalytic treatments can convert the ionic species into their metallic solid forms and deposit them over the semiconductor surface or transform them in less toxic soluble species. When a transformation to the zerovalent state is possible, this allows the recovery of the metal by mechanical or chemical procedures, with an important economical return. From the beginning of the development of heterogeneous photocatalysis, transformation and deposit of metals principally the most noble, expensive, and toxic ones was visualized as one of the potential applications of the technology in view of the involved economical and environmental aspects.